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八年级重点 不定代词的用法与练习  

2016-12-14 13:00:47|  分类: 亮亮新概念英语学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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表一:

不定代词

基本用法

alleach both eitherneither one little 、fewmany much other another some any

主语、宾语、表语、定语

(名词性、形容词性)

everyoneeverybody everything

somebodysomeone something

anyone anybody anything

nobody no one nothing

主语、宾语、表语(形容词性)

可以跟else ,而且可用所有格(---s形式)

none

主语、宾语、表语

every no

定语

表二:

八年级重点 不定代词的用法与练习      ( 第一部分 ) - 亮亮新概念英语学习班 - 亮亮新概念英语学习班 关注明天的希望

 1. all   注意下列词组的意义

above all        after all    in all     not at all      all of sudden    all at once     

all or nothing    all up      for all    once (and) for all   with all     all over

 练习题  (并翻译其含义、注意all的用法)

1) All _________(be) here and now you may begin your lecture.

2) All things ________(be ) difficult before they become easy.

3) All that he talked about at the meeting _______(be) something about environment protection.

4) All his money ________(be) spent on spirits and bobacco.

5) I love her with _______________ but she doesnt seem to care ( 全心全意地爱 )

6) You ca hardly imagine such a little boy eating ________________.( 整个面包)

7) You can see smiling faces ______________________( 全中国 )

8) _______________ was devoted to looking after the disabled children.  (他一生)

9) She told me the news in _________ honesty.      (非常诚实)

10) She is all ears whenever she listens to a lecture.   _______________

11) He is all skin and bones.      _______________

改错

1) All them have passed the important examination .

2) I like all them .

3) I like them all.

4) All of the six girls are from the country side.

5) The students all are interested in helping one another in English learning in our class.

6) The students like all finished writing their research papers.

7) How clever you are all.

8) They devoted their all spare time to helping the poor.

9) They devoted ________ spare time to helping the poor.

    A, all their     B, their all      C, all of their    D, of their all

__________________(不是所有的学生)understood what the professor was saying.

2. eachevery

① each指代前文的名词

② each each one everyoneevery +单数名词 、可以用单数或复数的人称代词

③ each each one every oneof 连用。Everyone不可。

④ each 谓语动词的形式和主语保持一致

⑤ every和数词连用  “每隔。。。”

⑥ each指两者(两者以上),  every两者以上

翻译

1) Each has his own merits.                      (          )

2) Each student may try twice.                   (          )

3) Every room in the hotel is well finished.         (          )

4) Every teacher and every student likes the idea.   (          )

选择题

5) Two me were waling in the street . ________ was carrying a big suitcase.

A, each      B, every     C. each of one     D, every one of

6) Everyone should have a mind of ________ own.

A. theirs      B, his      C. our            D your

7) Each wants to have __________ own home .

A ones       B, their     D. ours           D. yours

8) Every student in your class enjoys learning English ,___________.

            A, doesnt he     B. dont he       C, dont we

改错

1) Each one the students has his or her own merits and shortcomings.

2) Our football team played several games against the visiting team but lost everyone of them.

3) The students each has got an English  English dictionary.

4) Each of the students have got an English  English dictionary.

5) The old man goes to see his doctor each three days

6) There are trees on every side of the street .

7) The enemy fled in each direction (方向)

1. A:Is _________ here today?  B:Yes, we're all here. _________ is away.

2. A:Is there _________ in the red box?  B:No, there is _________ in it.

3. There is _________ wrong with my bike.It doesn't work.

4. Jim! _________ is waiting for you at the school gate.

5. In spring, _________ begins to grow.

6. There is _________ knocking at the door. Please go and see who it is.

7. The maths exam was very difficult. I don't think _________ could pass it.

8. I can't find my pen. I think _________ took it.

9. _________ is in the room, are they?

10. Does _________ live on that hill?

11. There's _________ new and important in today's newspaper.

12. Who is in the classroom?  It's empty. _________ is in it.

13. Maybe _______ put my pen _______ .I find it ________ , but I can't find it _______ .

14. We didn't go _________ else yesterday.They went _________ else, either.

15. Would you like _________ to drink?

16. We tried _________ , but _________ worked.

参考答案:

1.everybody,Nobody  2.anything,nothing   3.something   4.Somebody    5.everything 

6.somebody  7.anybody  8.somebody  9.Nobody  10.anybody  11.something / nothing  12. Nobody 13.somebody, somewhere, everywhere, anywhere  14.anywhere, nowhere 15.something  16.everything, nothing

allbotheveryeacheitherneither的用法

1.allboth同属前位限定词,但all可以与三类名词搭配,both只能与复数可数名词搭配,从意义上讲both指两者,all指三者或三者以上。如:

  How much time will you take for all this work?

  All children can be naughty sometimes.

  I got both these vases in Spain.

  Both cats are asleep.

  allboth用于否定时表示部分否定。

例如:

  I cannot promote both of you.  我不能使你们两个都提升。

  All flowers in his garden are not red.  他花园里的花并非都是红色的。

  Both (of them) are not my brothers.  他们两个之中,只有一个是我的兄弟。

  另外,表示部分否定的词还有every (everyone)

例如:

  Every man can not be a poet.  并非人人都可以成为诗人。

  要表达全部否定要用none / no (nobody) neithereither等。

例如:

  I cannot promote either of you.  你们两个我都不能提拔。

  No flower in his garden is red.   他花园的花都不是红的。

2.all every从意义上十分相近,都用来泛指人或物,然而两者各自与名词搭配的类别不同,every只能与单数可数名词连用。如:

  All Mondays are horrible.

  (= Every Monday is horrible. )

  all后可以跟thethismy等限定词,而every却不行。

例如:

  All the boys of this class are able to run faster than their teacher.

试比较:

  She was here all day.  她在这里呆了一整天。

  She was here every day.  她天天都在这里。

3.everyeach同属中位限定词,都可与单数名词连用,且意义相近,表示每个,然而everyeach并不完全一样,every强调整体概括,each则表示个别概念。例如:

  Each day is better than the one before.  一天比一天好。

  Every player was in good form.   每个运动员都处于最佳状态。

  如果不特别强调某一意义时,everyeach可以互换。

例如:

  We want every child to succeed.  我们希望每个孩子都成功。

  Each child will find his own personal road to success.  每个孩子将会找到他个人的成功之路。

  each可以指两个或两个以上的人或东西,every却不能指两个,只能指三个以上的数量。例如:

  Each sex has its own physical and psychological characteristics.

  男女各有其身体上和心理上的特点。(不能说every sex...)

  另外,如有其他限定词同时修饰中心词,each可作代词取each of的形式,而every则只能作限定词。例如:

  Each of my parents gave me presents for Christmas.

  过圣诞节时我父母每人都给我送了礼物。

4.either neither 同属中位限定词,与名词连用时不能和其他限定词同用(如冠词,物主代词,或指示代词)。either neither都只修饰单数可数名词,动词也用单数。例如:

  Either day is OK.   两天中哪一天都行。

  Neither car is exactly what I want.   这两辆车都不是我想要的。

  There were trees and flowers on either side of the street.   街两旁都有树和花。

  Either kind of school is quite suitable.  两种学校都挺适合。

  either也可指两个都both的意义相近,但both后接复数名词,either则只接单数名词,而且both还可与其他限定词搭配。例如:

  Both (of) my children have been to America.

  另外,当eitherneither与其他限定词连用时,则使用either ofneither of结构。例如:

  Either of the girls is quite capable of the work.  两位女孩都能胜任这项工作。

  Neither of his cats has been fed.  他的两只猫都还没喂。

  注意:此时动词用单数,不能用复数。但在否定句中却常用复数,neither of后单复数动词都可以,只是复数常用在非正式文体中。? 例如:

  I don’t think either of the girls are capable of the work.

  我认为这两个女孩都不能胜任这项工作。

Neither of your two answers is correct.  你的两个回答都不正确。

 

不定代词

不定代词both作主语时,谓语动词用复数式,而eitherneither作主语时,谓语动词用单数式。又如:不定代词all作主语指人时,一般含有复数的概念,谓语动词用复数式;而all作主语指物或情况时,一般含有单数概念,谓语动词用单数式。

多数不定代词都能作主语、宾语、表语和定语等,但none和复合不定代词不能作定语,而noevery只能作定语。

no=not anynot a(修饰单数可数名词),意思为“没有”,通常只用作定语,既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。

none相当于名词,表示三者或三者以上都“不是什么”的否定说法,意思为“没有人,没有什么东西”。在句中一般作主语、宾语和同位语。none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数式,也可用复数式,但在非正式文体中通常用复数式。

不定代词bothall的用法

    1both指两人或两物,肯定说法,表示“两者都……”的意思。在句中可作主语、宾语、定语、同位语和宾语补足语。如果both修饰名词时,该名词应该用复数式。both修饰或代替名词作主语时,谓语动词也只能用复数式。

例:Both are right.(作主语)

 ②I want both.(作宾语)

Both ways are good.(作定语)

2all指三个或三个以上的人或事物,表示“全体、所有、一切”的意思。在句中可作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语和宾语补足语。 all用作主语指“人”时,谓语用复数式;用作主语指“物或情况”(表示整体)时,往往有“一切、所有”的意思,作主语时通常视作单数,谓语动词也用单数式。另外,all作定语时,既可修饰可数名词(谓语动词用复数),也可修饰不可数名词(谓语动词用单数式)。

 例:All (of them) are there.(作主语,指人。)

 ②All (of the money) was lost yesterday.(作主语,指事物。)

 ③All is very quiet.(作主语,指情况。)

He gave his all to his country.(作宾语,指一切。)

 ⑤Thats all for today.(作表语) ⑥We all like to learn English.(作同位语)

All knowledge comes from practice.(作定语,修饰不可数名词,谓语动词用单数式。) ⑧All the children need love.(作定语,修饰可数复数名词,如果名词前有定冠词theall须放在the之前。)

 ⑨She has told me all about it.(作宾语补足语)

注:(1bothall用作主语的同位语时,如果句子的动词是连系动词be,则bothall须放在be之后;如果动词是其它动词时,bothall则置于主语之后动词之前。

例:They are both tall.

They both like swimming.

We are all for you.(我们都支持你。)

 ④We all love our motherland.

You all can go there.

2bothallnot连用只表示部分否定,如果要表示全部否定,则分别用neithernone

例:Both of us are not teachers.  Not both of us are teachers.并非我们俩都是老师。(部分否定)      

Neither of us are teachers.      我们俩都不是老师。(全部否定)

All of the books are not mine.   Not all of the books are mine.   并非这些书都是我的。(部分否定)   None of the books are mine.   所有的这些书都不是我的。(全部否定)

不定代词eitherneithe的用法

either指表示“两个人或物中的任何一个”(即两者都是)的意思,是肯定概念;而neithereither的否定形式,表示“两个之中一个也不是”(即两者都不是)的意思,是否定概念。两者均可作主语、宾语和定语。两者作主语时,谓语动词要用单数式。两者作定语修饰名词时,被修饰的名词为单数式。

例:Either will do.(随便哪个都行;作主语。)

 ②Neither is correct.(两个都不正确;作主语。)

I dont believe either of you.(我不相信你们两个;作宾语。)

You can take neither of them.(你不能把他们两个带走;作宾语。)

He thinks either girl is beautiful.(他认为两个女孩都漂亮;修饰单数名词,谓语用单数式,作定语。)

⑦ Neither film is interesting.(两部电影都没有兴趣;修饰单数名词,谓语用单数式,作定语。)

⑧ 注:(1eitherneitherof连用构成“either ofneither of”结构作主语时,谓语动词也要用单数式。

例:Either of you is good students.

Neither of them studies English.

2eitheror连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常和最邻近的主语保持一致,表示有“两者择一”的意思。

例:Either you or he is to do the work. 不是你就是他来做这件事。

3neithernor连接两个主语时,谓语动词也通常和最邻近的主语保持一致。 例:Neither you nor I am wrong. 你和我都没有错。

不定代词eachevery的用法

1each指每个人或事物的个别情况,从个体出发,相当于汉语的“各个、每个、各自”的意思,着重在于“个别、个体”,即强调个性,可作形容词或代词。each强调个人作主语时,谓语动词用单数式;作定语时,修饰可数名词的单数式。each在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。 例:①Each has a dictionary.(强调个人,作主语。) ②The principal had a talk with each of them.(作宾语) ③He often goes to work by bike each day.(作定语) ④Each student came here yesterday.(作定语) ⑤They each have some beautiful stamps.(作同位语)

2every虽然也有“每个”的含义,但常从整体出发,相当于汉语“每个都,人人都,一切都”的意思,着重在于“全体”,即强调共性,只能作形容词。在句中只能作定语,修饰单数可数名词处在主语的位置时,谓语动词用单数式。另外,every还通常修饰one, day, time等词。 例:①Every student comes from countryside in our class. Every one of us has been to Beijing. Tom goes to school every day. He isnt at home when I look for him every time. The doctor saved her life in every way.

注:(1)人称代词前不能直接用each修饰,但可用eachof加人称代词的结构。

 例:Each them wants to have a try.(错误) Each of them wants to have a try.(正确)

2)人称代词前不能直接用every修饰,也不能用everyof加人称代词的结构。 例:Every us wants to go home.(错误) Every of us wants to go home.(错误)

3the加上名词的前面不能直接用each修饰,只能用eachofthe加名词的结构。 例:Each the men will be present.(错误) 每个人都要到场。   Each of the men will be present.(正确)     

不定代词oneones的用法

1one指代不定人称时,表示“人、一个人”的意思。它有属格形式ones和自身代词oneself的形式。one主要用于泛指人,指一种人或指代前面提到的人或事物的单数可数名词(如果代替不可数名词则用指示代词that),以避免重复再现。在句中one能作主语、宾语和定语(属格形式)。

2onesone的复数形式,能跟定冠词the连用,可以有自己的定语。

例:One should be strict with oneself.(作主语)  

She bought a camera, I want to buy one, too.(作宾语)

One must do ones duty.(属格式作定语)

 ④Please pass me the book, the one on the desk. one代替前面分句中的book,自己的定语是on the desk。)

There are two old chairs and five new ones in the office. (ones代替前面分句中的chairs,自己的定语是fivenew)         

The population of China is larger than that of USA.

(用指示代词that代替前面的不可数名词population。)     

不定代词otheranother的用法

otheranother都可作代词,也可作形容词用,即两个代词都具有名词和形容词的性质。

1other指代的是表示有“另外的,另一个”的意思,相当于名词和形容词。具有名词性质时,其复数形式为others,有“另一些”的意思。具有形容词性质时,有形容词的特征外,还有单数属格形式others和复数属格形式others’。 other指其余的人或物时,常与定冠词the连用,即the other指“两个中的另一个”。otherothers都是泛指“别人或别的东西”。 other还可表示“另外的,其他的,另一些”时,可以代替或修饰可数名词和不可数名词。others相当于other加可数名词复数形式,表示“其余的”意思时,它前面有定冠词theother在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。

例:He has two sons, one is a doctor, the other is a peasant.other代替可数名词,作主语。)

I have two sheets of paper, one is redthe other is white.other代替不可数名词,作主语。)

Now I will show you the other (others).(作宾语)

Other people can not come here.(修饰可数名词,作定语。)

Some are singing, others are dancing.(作主语)

The other students went there.the other相当于othersother修饰可数名词,它前面有定冠词the,作定语。)

 2another指代的是至少有三个以上的任何“另一个,又一个”的意思,即多个东西中的另一个,不是两个之中的另一个。anotheranother合并构成,因此它只能代替或修饰可数和不可数的单数名词,没有anothers的复数形式,并且其前不能有冠词连用。another可指人也可指物,在句中可作主语、宾语和定语等。

例:There are three pencils on the deks. One is red, the other is blue, and another is yellow.(作主语)

Please show me another.(作宾语)

Id like to have another glass of wine.(修饰不可数名词,作定语。)

Another teacher didnt go there yesterday.(修饰单数可数名词,作定语。)

 ⑤To say is one thing and to do is another.(作表语)

注:最高级变为比较级用“比较级+than+any other+单数名词”。

例:Beijing is bigger than any other city in China.=Beijing is the biggest  city in China.)   

复合不定代词的用法

1、复合不定代词是由some, any, no, every-body, -one, -thing构成的代词。

即:①指人的有:everyone, someone, anyone, no one everybody, somebody, anybody, nobody ②指物的有:everything, something, anything, nothing

注:含有-one-body的指人的不定代词的功能和词义基本相同,只是含有-one的不定代词比含-body的不定代词更文雅。

2、复合不定代词的用法: 复合不定代词只相当于名词,在句子中可作主语、宾语和表语,不能作定语(即不具有形容词的性质)。 复合不定代词都作单数看待。如果充当主语时,谓语动词用单数式。如果被定语修饰时,修饰语只能后置。 和some, any用法一样,带有some的复合不定代词一般用于肯定句,带有any的复合不定代词一般用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。

例:Someone is knocking at the door.(作主语)

I dont want to eat anything today.(作宾语)

Thats nothing.(作表语)

 ④I have something important to tell you. (用于肯定句作宾语,修饰语后置。)         

Is anybody at home?(用于疑问句作主语)

Nobody is absent.(作主语)

Id like something to eat.(用于肯定句作宾语,修饰语后置。)

⑨ If you want anything, please tell me.(用于条件从句中作宾语。)

注:(1)含有some的复合不定代词也可用于疑问句中,表示请求、建议和反问等。 例:①Could you tell me something about her?(表示请求)

Would you like something to eat?(表示建议)

 ③Why dont you ask somebody to help you?(表示反问)

2)含有any的复合不定代词也可以用于肯定句中,表示“任何人”或“任何事”的意思。 例:①Anybody can discuss the problem.(表示任何人)

 ②He wont do anything for me.(表示任何事)

3no one(没有一个人)只能指人,不能指物,其后不能接of短语;而none则可指人,也可指物,其后能接of短语。no one作主语时,谓语动词用单数式。none作主语的用法在上述(二)中已叙述。 例:No one likes a person with bad manners.

4everyoneevery one用于三个或三个以上,侧重于“全体”。everyone只指人,而every one既可指人又可指物。everyone一般不能用在以of引导的短语之前,而every one则可用于以of引导的短语之前。另外,anyoneany one, someonesome oneeveryoneevery one用法相似。

例:Everyone likes to be praised.

 ②Every one of people likes to be praised.every one指人)

Every one of these books is very cheap.every one指物)

Everyone of people likes to be praised.(错误)

5)复合不定代词的属格式就在不定代词后加’s构成。如果复合不定代词之后有定语else,则属格式应移到else上。

例:There is somebodys bag on the desk. Everybodys life is very important.

She took somebody elses umbrella by mistake.

6)不定代词everyone的否定词为noneeverything的否定词为nothingeverybody的否定词为nobodyno one,且none, no one, nothing, nobody常用于简略回答。在一般情况下,nothing回答以what开头的问句;nobodyno one回答who开头的问句;none回答how manyhow much开头的问句。

例:Whats on the blackboard?——Nothing.

Who are you speaking to? ——NobodyNo one.

How many people are there in the classroom? ——None

 ④How much do you have? ——None.

 

 

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